Long-term Clinical Outcomes of Splanchnic Vein Thrombosis
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IMPORTANCE: Little information is available on the long-term clinical outcome of patients with splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT). OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence rates of bleeding, thrombotic events, and mortality in a large international cohort of patients with SVT. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A prospective cohort study was conducted beginning May 2, 2008, and completed January 30, 2014, at hospital-based centers specialized in the management of thromboembolic disorders; a 2-year follow-up period was completed January 30, 2014, and data analysis was conducted from July 1, 2014, to February 28, 2015. Participants included 604 consecutive patients with objectively diagnosed SVT; there were no exclusion critieria. Information was gathered on baseline characteristics, risk factors, and antithrombotic treatment. Clinical outcomes during the follow-up period were documented and reviewed by a central adjudication committee. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Major bleeding, defined according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis; bleeding requiring hospitalization; thrombotic events, including venous and arterial thrombosis; and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Of the 604 patients (median age, 54 years; 62.6% males), 21 (3.5%) did not complete follow-up. The most common risk factors for SVT were liver cirrhosis (167 of 600 patients [27.8%]) and solid cancer (136 of 600 [22.7%]); the most common sites of thrombosis were the portal vein (465 of 604 [77.0%]) and the mesenteric veins (266 of 604 [44.0%]). Anticoagulation was administered to 465 patients in the entire cohort (77.0%) with a mean duration of 13.9 months; 175 of the anticoagulant group (37.6%) received parenteral treatment only, and 290 patients (62.4%) were receiving vitamin K antagonists. The incidence rates (reported with 95% CIs) were 3.8 per 100 patient-years (2.7-5.2) for major bleeding, 7.3 per 100 patient-years (5.8-9.3) for thrombotic events, and 10.3 per 100 patient-years (8.5-12.5) for all-cause mortality. During anticoagulant treatment, these rates were 3.9 per 100 patient-years (2.6-6.0) for major bleeding and 5.6 per 100 patient-years (3.9-8.0) for thrombotic events. After treatment discontinuation, rates were 1.0 per 100 patient-years (0.3-4.2) and 10.5 per 100 patient-years (6.8-16.3), respectively. The highest rates of major bleeding and thrombotic events during the whole study period were observed in patients with cirrhosis (10.0 per 100 patient-years [6.6-15.1] and 11.3 per 100 patient-years [7.7-16.8], respectively); the lowest rates were in patients with SVT secondary to transient risk factors (0.5 per 100 patient-years [0.1-3.7] and 3.2 per 100 patient-years [1.4-7.0], respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Most patients with SVT have a substantial long-term risk of thrombotic events. In patients with cirrhosis, this risk must be balanced against a similarly high risk of major bleeding. Anticoagulant treatment appears to be safe and effective in most patients with SVT.
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