Risk factors associated with recurrence in patients with solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas.
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CONTEXT: Solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPT) are rare, generally low grade pancreatic neoplasms that occasionally display malignant behavior. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical and pathological features associated with increased risk of recurrence of SPT. METHODS: Cohort study of patients with SPT who underwent resection of the primary tumor and in selected cases resection of metastatic disease from 1999-2013 at a single tertiary care Hepatopancreatobiliary center. Risk factors for recurrence were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: There were 32 patients. The mean age was 35.65 years (standard deviation: 12.26), 26/32, 81.25% were female. Median size of resected tumors was 4.7 cm (1.1-14.5). Most were solid and cystic (22/32, 68.75%), encapsulated (27/32, 84.4%) and located in the pancreatic body or tail (22/32, 68.75%). All displayed strong β-catenin, cyclin D1, CD56, and progesterone receptor staining with loss of E-cadherin. Most stained positive for vimentin (15/16, 93.75%) and CD10 (17/18, 94.4%). Median follow-up was 43 months (range: 3-207); 3/32, 9.38% recurred (all after 5-years from curative resection) and 1 died by the end of the study period, 11 years after diagnosis. Patients who developed recurrences (n=3) more commonly had synchronous metastases at presentation (P=0.006), lymphovascular invasion (P=0.04) and invasion of tumor capsule (P=0.08) compared to those who did not have disease recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Lymphovascular invasion, synchronous metastases and local invasion of tumor capsule are associated with aggressive behavior. Since recurrences may occur >5 years from resection, this high-risk group should undergo extended follow-up. Progression and recurrence is slow, therefore, resection of liver metastases can offer long-term survival.
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