MR lymphography using iron oxide nanoparticles in rats: Pharmacokinetics in the lymphatic system after intravenous injection
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The objective of the study was to quantify the kinetics of the superparamagnetic nanoparticle ferumoxtran (AMI 227, Sinerem(R), Combidex(R)) in the efferent lymph of the subdiaphragmatic lymph nodes and in various node groups of the rat to elucidate the uptake mechanism. The thoracic lymph duct was catheterized in 24 rats after an IV injection of 40 micromol Fe/kg ferumoxtran. Three rats were studied at several time points between 1.5 and 24 hours. At each time point, 0.3 ml of lymph were collected over 45 minutes. Lymph nodes were differentiated into five groups. The iron concentration in the samples and in plasma was measured by relaxometry at 0.47 T and atomic absorption spectrometry. Cytology was performed on the lymph. High concentrations of nanoparticles were found in the thoracic lymph soon after injection (90 minutes). No particle was found in the lymph cells, indicating that ferumoxtran was extracellular in the lymph fluid. The maximum concentration was reached later in all node groups, at 12 hours, and then plateaued. The transcapillary pathway and subsequent lymph drainage of the particles seem to play a major role in the delivery to the lymph nodes.
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