- Imaging plays a crucial role in oncology to assist in the management of patients and selection of drug regimen. Recent advances in imaging techniques allowing to predict and evaluate response to treatments in oncology will be reviewed. The standard in the evaluation of response to treatment is based on the measurement of lesion size. Functional imaging assesses physiological or molecular processes that may be earlier indicators of early response to treatment. Dynamic imaging of tumor vascularization assesses the biodistribution of a contrast agent within tumoral tissues. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging can differentiate free water from water restricted by tissues, providing an assessment of tumor cellularity. MR spectroscopy assesses the relative quantity of specific chemical components within normal and tumoral tissues. 18 FDG PET imaging provides an assessment of the metabolic activity of tissues. FDG uptake is proportional to cellular proliferation and number of viable cells within a tumor. Results from studies assessing the role of these emerging imaging techniques remain preliminary and the medical community must determine their respective role in the routine evaluation of response to treatment in oncological patients.