Role of the IFNG +874T/A polymorphism in Chagas disease in a Colombian population
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Genetic susceptibility to Trypanosoma cruzi infection and the development of cardiomyopathy is complex, heterogeneous, and likely involves several genes. Previous studies have implicated cytokine and chemokine genes in susceptibility to Chagas disease. Here we investigated the association between the interferon-gamma gene (IFNG) +874T/A polymorphism and Chagas disease, focusing on susceptibility and severity. This study included 236 chagasic patients (asymptomatic, n=116; cardiomyopathic, n=120) and 282 healthy controls from a Colombian population where T. cruzi is highly endemic. Individuals were genotyped for functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs2430561; A/T) of the IFNG gene by amplification refractory mutational system PCR (ARMS-PCR). Moreover, clinical manifestations of Chagas in patients were analyzed. We found a significant difference in the distribution of the IFNG +874 "A" allele between patients and healthy controls (P=0.003; OR=1.46, 95% CI, 1.13-1.89). The frequency of the IFNG +874 genotype A/A, which is associated with reduced production of interferon-gamma, was increased in the patients relative to controls (38.1% vs. 26.6%). We compared the frequencies of IFNG alleles and genotypes between asymptomatic patients and those with chagasic cardiomyopathy and found no significant difference. Our data suggest that the IFNG +874T/A genetic polymorphism may be involved in susceptibility but not in the progression of Chagas disease in this Colombian population.
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