Fecal microbiome transplantation by low-volume enema is an effective, safe, and inexpensive alternative to antibiotic therapy for patients with chronic relapsing
Clostridium difficileinfection (CDI). We explored the microbial diversity of pre- and posttransplant stool specimens from CDI patients ( n= 6) using deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. While interindividual variability in microbiota change occurs with fecal transplantation and vancomycin exposure, in this pilot study we note that clinical cure of CDI is associated with an increase in diversity and richness. Genus- and species-level analysis may reveal a cocktail of microorganisms or products thereof that will ultimately be used as a probiotic to treat CDI. IMPORTANCEAntibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) due to Clostridium difficileis a widespread phenomenon in hospitals today. Despite the use of antibiotics, up to 30% of patients are unable to clear the infection and suffer recurrent bouts of diarrheal disease. As a result, clinicians have resorted to fecal microbiome transplantation (FT). Donor stool for this type of therapy is typically obtained from a spouse or close relative and thoroughly tested for various pathogenic microorganisms prior to infusion. Anecdotal reports suggest a very high success rate of FT in patients who fail antibiotic treatment (>90%). We used deep-sequencing technology to explore the human microbial diversity in patients with Clostridium difficileinfection (CDI) disease after FT. Genus- and species-level analysis revealed a cocktail of microorganisms in the Bacteroidetesand Firmicutesphyla that may ultimately be used as a probiotic to treat CDI.