Bacterial Capture Efficiency and Antimicrobial Activity of Phage-Functionalized Model Surfaces
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The rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has directed substantial attention toward the use of bacteriophages as a means to control bacterial populations. It has been proposed that bacteriophages can be applied as a coating on surfaces in healthcare settings or on indwelling medical devices to create an antimicrobial surface. In this study, antimicrobial model surfaces functionalized with five different types of bacteriophage were prepared and characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The bacterial capture efficiency of these functionalized surfaces was studied for two common bacteria, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Binding of the phages to a solid surface affected their biofunctionality as expressed by the capture efficiency and rate of host membrane disruption. Moreover, the size and shape of the bacteriophage and positioning of its specific binding proteins significantly affected its bacterial capture capability in the immobilized state. Symmetric bacteriophages were found to be a better choice for antibacterial surfaces compared to more asymmetric tailed bacteriophages. Immobilized phages were found to disrupt the membranes of attached bacteria and are thus proposed as a candidate for antimicrobial surfaces.
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