Effects of electric field on thermodynamics and ordering of a dipolar liquid
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We propose that an electric field's role in changing the structural disorder may be investigated by comparing the field-induced entropy decrease, ΔES, against the pressure-induced and cooling-induced entropy decreases, ΔpS and ΔTS, respectively, for the same increase in the dielectric α-relaxation time, Δτα, or in the viscosity. If these three quantities are found to be the same, the change in the number of microstates, Δln Ω = ΔS/R, would be the same whether there is an electric field-induced dipole vector alignment, or not. The available data [S. Samanta and R. Richert, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 044504 (2015)] show that ΔES ≅ ΔpS, and ΔES ≅ ΔTS. We further argue that in the case of conformational disorder without hydrodynamics, as for a flexible molecule's orientationally disordered or plastic crystal, ΔTS would be more negative than ΔES for the same increase in Δτα. For cyclo-octanol plastic crystal, whose octyl-ring would lose some of its dielectrically inactive conformational degrees of freedom on cooling, ΔTS is five-times ΔES. Hence the entropy of such crystals may not be related to their τα, an aspect relevant to certain biopolymer crystals. We also mention other effects of E. The findings are relevant to a number of recent studies on the analysis of the effect of electric field on a liquid's properties. The method can be used to study the role of other entropy-altering variables in liquid crystals and ferromagnetic liquids.
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