Effect of Oxidative Stress on Brain Damage Detected by MRI and in vivo 31P-NMR
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The brain is susceptible to oxidative stress. This is due to the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, high rate of oxygen consumption, regional high concentrations of iron, and relatively low antioxidant capacity. These factors may predispose the premature infant to brain damage. Brain damage may be due to: 1. Brief anoxia followed by hyperoxia (mimics parturition oxidative stress); or 2. Prolonged exposure to hyperoxia (mimics oxidative stress from postpartum maintenance in a hyperoxic environment). We have developed two animal models to examine these forms of oxidative stress on the brains of rats. In Model I rats were exposed to brief anoxic anoxia (100% N2) followed by hyperoxia (100% O2). Using T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain intensity decreased following the treatment suggesting water loss or free radical production. In vivo 1H-NMR showed brain water content appeared to increase, however variability rendered this result insignificant. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping, using a-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) produced a free radical signal from the anoxic-anoxia hyperoxia treated animals which suggests the decrease in MRI T2-weighted image signal intensity was due to free radicals. In Model II, we examined the effects of prolonged normobaric hyperoxia (85% O2) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and brain phosphorous metabolism. BBB permeability increased following 1 week of hyperoxia. In addition, measurement of high energy phosphates, using in vivo 31P-NMR, showed the PCr/ATP ratio significantly decreased, the ATP/Pi ratio increased and the (ATP+PCr)/Pi ratio increased. Because the BBB is sensitive to oxidative stress its loss of integrity may be due to free radicals. The level of oxidative stress may result in brain elevation of ATP as an adaptation mechanism. In conclusion, anoxic-anoxia and prolonged hyperoxia exposure produce MRI visible changes in the brain. These two mechanisms may be important in the etiology of brain damage observed in many premature infants.
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