Resistance training changes the balance of muscle protein turnover, leading to gains in muscle mass. A longitudinal design was employed to assess the effect that resistance training had on muscle protein turnover in the fed state. A secondary goal was investigation of the potential interactive effects of creatine (Cr) monohydrate supple mentation on resistance-training-induced adaptations. Young (N = 19, 23.7 ± 3.2 year), untrained (UT), healthy male subjects completed an 8-week resistance-training program (6 d/week). Supplementation with Cr had no impact on any of the variables studied; hence, all subsequent data were pooled. In the UT and trained (T) state, subjects performed an acute bout of resistance exercise with a single leg (exercised, EX), while their contralateral leg acted as a nonexercised (NE) control. Following exercise, subjects were fed while receiving a primed constant infusion of [d5]- and [15N]-phenylalanine to determine the fractional synthetic and breakdown rates (FSR and FBR), respectively, of skeletal muscle proteins. Acute exercise increased FSR (UT-NE, 0.065 ± 0.025 %/h; UT-EX, 0.088 ± 0.032 %/h; P < 0.01) and FBR (UT-NE, 0.047 ± 0.023 %/h; UT-EX, 0.058 ± 0.026 %/h; P < 0.05). Net balance (BAL = FSR FBR) was positive in both legs (P < 0.05) but was significantly greater (+65%) in the EX versus the NE leg (P < 0.05). Muscle protein FSR and FBR were greater at rest following T (FSR for T-NE vs. UT-NE, +46%, P < 0.01; FBR for T-NE vs. UT-NE, +81%, P < 0.05). Resistance training attenuated the acute exercise-induced rise in FSR (T-NE vs. T-EX, +20%, P = 0.65). The present results demonstrate that resistance training resulted in an elevated resting muscle protein turnover but an attenuation of the acute response of muscle protein turnover to a single bout of resistance exercise.Key words: myofibrillar protein, hypertrophy, protein synthesis, protein breakdown.