Given the increasing emphasis on performance of resistance exercise as an essential component of health, we evaluated, using a prospective longitudinal design, the potential for resistance training to affect arterial endothelial function. Twenty-eight men (23 ± 3.9 yr old; mean ± SE) engaged in 12 wk of whole body resistance training five times per week using a repeating split-body 3-day cycle. Brachial endothelial function was measured using occlusion cuff-induced flow-mediated dilation. After occlusion of the forearm for 4.5 min, brachial artery dilation and postocclusion blood flow was measured continuously for 15 and 70 s, respectively. Peak and 10-s postocclusion blood flow, shear rate, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (relative and normalized to shear rate) were measured pretraining (Pre), at 6 wk of training (Mid), and at 13 wk of training (Post). Results indicated an increase of mean brachial artery diameter by Mid and Post vs. Pre. Peak and 10-s postocclusion blood flow increased by Mid and remained elevated at Post; however, shear rates were not different at any time point. Relative and normalized flow-mediated dilation was also not different at any time point. This study is the first to show that peripheral arterial remodeling does occur with resistance training in healthy young men. In addition, the increase in postocclusion blood flow may indicate improved resistance vessel function. However, unlike studies involving endurance training, flow-mediated dilation did not increase with resistance training. Thus arterial adaptations with high-pressure loads, such as those experienced during resistance exercise, may be quite different compared with endurance training.