Aging impairs the sensitivity of skeletal muscle to anabolic stimuli, such as amino acids and resistance exercise. Beef is a nutrient-rich source of dietary protein capable of stimulating muscle protein synthesis (MPS) rates in older men at rest. To date, the dose–response of myofibrillar protein synthesis to graded ingestion of protein-rich foods, such as beef, has not been determined. We aimed to determine the dose–response of MPS with and without resistance exercise to graded doses of beef ingestion. Thirty-five middle-aged men (59 ± 2 years) ingested 0 g, 57 g (2 oz; 12 g protein), 113 g (4 oz; 24 g protein), or 170 g (6 oz; 36 g protein) of (15% fat) ground beef (n = 7 per group). Subjects performed a bout of unilateral resistance exercise to allow measurement of the fed state and the fed plus resistance exercise state within each dose. A primed constant infusion of l-[1-13C]leucine was initiated to measure leucine oxidation and of l-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine was initiated to measure myofibrillar MPS. Myofibrillar MPS was increased with ingestion of 170 g of beef to a greater extent than all other doses at rest and after resistance exercise. There was more leucine oxidation with ingestion of 113 g of beef than with 0 g and 57 g, and it increased further after ingestion of 170 g of beef (all p < 0.05). Ingestion of 170 g of beef protein is required to stimulate a rise in myofibrillar MPS over and above that seen with lower doses. An isolated bout of resistance exercise was potent in stimulating myofibrillar MPS, and acted additively with feeding.