Mechanical stretch stimulates macrophage inflammatory protein-2 secretion from fetal rat lung cells
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Ventilation-induced lung injury has been related to cytokine production. Immaturity and barotrauma are important contributors to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in infants. In the present study, stretch of organotypic cultured fetal rat lung cells was used to simulate ventilation of preterm newborns. Cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 ng/ml) and/or mechanical stretch. After 4 h, stretch enhanced LPS-induced macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 production in a force- and frequency-dependent manner. The maximal effect of stretch was seen with 5% elongation at 40 cycles/min. In contrast, after 1 h of stimulation, stretch alone significantly increased MIP-2 production, which was not blocked by cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis. At both the 1- and 4-h time points, only LPS increased MIP-2 mRNA levels. Stretch-induced MIP-2 release was associated with cell injury as measured by lactate dehydrogenase release and was not inhibited by gadolinium, a stretch-activated ion channel blocker. Taken together, these results suggest that the major effect of stretch on MIP-2 production from fetal rat lung cells is to stimulate its secretion.
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