A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of complement inhibition in ischemia-reperfusion injury after lung transplantation in human beings
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OBJECTIVE: Complement activation has been shown to play a significant role in ischemia-reperfusion injury after lung transplantation. TP-10 (soluble complement receptor 1 inhibitor) inhibits the activation of complement by inactivating C3a and C5a convertases. This was a clinical trial of TP-10 to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury in lung transplantation. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blinded, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial, 59 patients from four lung transplant programs received TP-10 (10 mg/kg, n = 28) or placebo (n = 31) before reperfusion. This dose achieved 90% complement inhibition for 24 hours, and activity had returned toward normal by 72 hours. RESULTS: At 24 hours, 14 of 28 patients in the TP-10 group (50%) were extubated, whereas only 6 of 31 patients in the placebo group (19%) were (P = .01). The total times on the ventilator and in the intensive care unit both tended to be shorter in the TP-10 group, but these differences did not achieve statistical significance. Among patients requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 5 in placebo group and n = 7 in TP-10 group), the mean duration of mechanical ventilation was reduced by 11 days in the TP-10 group (10.6 +/- 5.0 days vs 21.5 +/- 5.9 days in placebo group, P = .2). Operative deaths, incidences of infection and rejection, and length of hospital stay were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term complement inhibition with TP-10 led to early extubation in a significantly higher proportion of lung transplant recipients. The effect of TP-10 was greater among patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, with a large reduction in ventilator days. Complement inhibition thus significantly decreases the duration of mechanical ventilation and could be useful in improving the outcome of lung transplant recipients.
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