Emerging novel therapies in the treatment of castrate-resistant prostate cancer
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The treatment options for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), until very recently, only included docetaxel. In the past 10 months, newly Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approved agents in the United States have shown survival benefit for patients with CRPC. This review takes a closer look at these newer agents: sipuleucel-T (immune therapy) and cabazi-taxel (cytotoxic therapy). We also review the evidence supporting the FDA's approval of denosumab (bone-targeted therapy) as a treatment option for men with CRPC and bony metastases. Newer agents currently being investigated in phase III clinical trials for their potential role in metastatic CRPC are also reviewed. These agents include abiraterone (hormonal therapy), TAK-700 (hormonal therapy), MDV3100 (hormonal therapy), ipilimumab (immune therapy), zibotentan (endothelin-A receptor antagonist) and dasatinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitor). As ongoing studies using all the aforementioned agents continue to evolve, our understanding of how and where these agents fit into the treatment paradigm for patients with CRPC will become clearer.