Risk factors for bladder cancer recurrence after nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial tumors: Results from the Canadian Upper Tract Collaboration1Co-first authors.
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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors for bladder cancer recurrence in a cohort of patients treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). PATIENTS AND METHODS: At 10 Canadian University Centers, we retrospectively evaluated data, between 1990 and 2010, from 743 patients who were free from bladder cancer and were previously treated with RNU for upper tract urothelial cancer. RESULTS: Of 743 patients, 167 (22.5%) developed bladder tumors after a median time of 17.2 months after RNU. Multivariable analysis detected age (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.028; 95% CI: 1.010-1.046; P = 0.0018), tumor location in both the renal pelvis and the ureter (HR = 2.205; 95% CI: 1.355-3.589; P = 0.0015), the use of adjuvant systemic chemotherapy (HR = 2.309; 95% CI: 1.439-3.705; P = 0.0005), and laparoscopic surgery (HR = 1.876; 95% CI: 1.226-2.87; P = 0.0037) as risk factors for bladder cancer recurrence. Open excision of a bladder cuff (HR = 0.661; 95% CI: 0.453-0.965; P = 0.0319) and transurethral resection of the intramural ureter (HR = 0.548; 95% CI: 0.306-0.981; P = 0.0429) on comparison with extravesical resection decreased the risk of bladder cancer recurrence significantly. Major limitations were the retrospective design and partially missing data, although the significance of variables did not change in the imputation analysis. CONCLUSION: Older patients, those with tumor location in both the renal pelvis and the ureter, and those treated with adjuvant systemic chemotherapy were found at higher risk for intravesical recurrence, as were those having undergone extravesical ureterectomy or laparoscopic RNU.
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