Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is divided into several histopathological subtypes, each with significantly different clinical features. However, current data regarding the prognostic value of histological subtype is limited and conflicted. We examined the impact of RCC histology on disease prognosis in a large, multi-institutional Canadian analysis. Methods: The Canadian Kidney Cancer Information System (CKCis), a prospective database from 14 Canadian institutions, was utilized for the study. 1284 patients with non-metastatic RCC, who underwent surgical intervention with curative intent, were included in the study. Patients were stratified according to their primary histology and the Chi-squared test was used to determine associations between histopathology and clinical features. The impact of histology of disease-free survival (DFS) was determined with a multivariate analysis adjusted for age, gender, tumor size, tumor grade, and pathological stage. Results: Clear cell RCC was the most prevalent histological subtype found in 80.5% of patients. Histopathology was significantly associated with patient age, tumor grade, and pathological stage. Advanced stage disease (>T3) was associated with clear cell and papillary type II RCC (p<0.05). 90.7%, 86.7%, 78.5%, and 78.8% of patients with chromophobe, papillary type I, papillary type II, and clear cell RCC respectively, were free of disease after a median follow-up of 1.2 years. On multivariate analysis, histological subtype was a significant predictor of disease-free survival (DFS). When compared to clear cell histology, chromophobe RCC had a significantly higher DFS (HR=0.38, 95% CI 0.15-0.95, p<0.05), and papillary type I RCC had a trend towards a lower rate of disease progression (HR=0.31, 95% CI 0.08-1.28, p=0.05). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that histological subtype impacts disease progression. Histological subtype was independently associated with DFS in surgically treated RCC, specifically chromophobe RCC was shown to have the highest DFS. This may be used to help individualize patient treatment and follow-up based on primary tumor histology.