Activity and subcellular compartmentalization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α are altered by the centrosome-associated protein CAP350
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear hormone receptors (PPAR) are ligand-activated transcription factors that play pivotal roles in governing metabolic homeostasis and cell growth. PPARs are primarily in the nucleus but, under certain circumstances, can be found in the cytoplasm. We show here that PPAR(alpha) interacts with the centrosome-associated protein CAP350. CAP350 also interacts with PPAR(delta), PPAR(gamma) and liver-X-receptor alpha, but not with the 9-cis retinoic acid receptor, RXR(alpha). Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that PPAR(alpha) is diffusely distributed in the nucleus and excluded from the cytoplasm. However, in the presence of coexpressed CAP350, PPAR(alpha) colocalizes with CAP350 to discrete nuclear foci and to the centrosome, perinuclear region and intermediate filaments. In contrast, the subcellular distribution of RXR(alpha) or of thyroid hormone receptor alpha was not altered by coexpression of CAP350. An amino-terminal fragment of CAP350 was localized exclusively to nuclear foci and was sufficient to recruit PPAR(alpha) to these sites. Mutation of the single putative nuclear hormone receptor interacting signature motif LXXLL present in this fragment had no effect on its subnuclear localization but abrogated recruitment of PPAR(alpha) to nuclear foci. Surprisingly, mutation of the LXXLL motif in this CAP350 subfragment did not prevent its binding to PPAR(alpha) in vitro, suggesting that this motif serves some function other than PPAR(alpha) binding in recruiting PPAR(alpha) to nuclear spots. CAP350 inhibited PPAR(alpha)-mediated transactivation in an LXXLL-dependent manner, suggesting that CAP350 represses PPAR(alpha) function. Our findings implicate CAP350 in a dynamic process that recruits PPAR(alpha) to discrete nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments and suggest that altered intracellular compartmentalization represents a regulatory process that modulates PPAR function.
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