Clinical Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The clinical epidemiology of CVD in CKD is challenging due to a prior lack of standardized definitions of CKD, inconsistent measures of renal function, and possible alternative effects of 'traditional' CVD risk factors in patients with CKD. These challenges add to the complexity of the role of renal impairment as the cause or the consequence of cardiovascular disease. The goal of this review is to summarize the current evidence on: (1) the incidence and prevalence of CVD in chronic renal insufficiency and in ESRD, (2) risk factors for CVD in CKD, (3) the outcomes of patients with renal failure with CVD, and (4) CKD as a risk factor for CVD. The epidemiological associations implicating the huge burden of CVD throughout all stages of CKD highlight the need to better understand and implement adequate screening, and diagnostic and treatment strategies.
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