Background: The use of bovine thrombin has been an effective approach to aiding hemostasis during surgery for over 60 years. Its use has a reported association with the development of antibodies to coagulation factors with limited evidence to the clinical significance. Methods: The Collaborative Delphi survey methodology was used to develop a consensus on specified topic areas from a panel of 12 surgeons/scientists who have had experience with topical thrombins; it consisted of 2 rounds of a Web-based survey and a final live discussion. Results: Some key issues that reached consensus included: bovine, human plasma-derived and recombinant human thrombin are equally effective hemostatic agents with similar adverse event rates, and immunogenicity to a topical protein rarely translate into adverse events. Conclusions: Although a risk of immunogenicity is associated with all topical thrombins, no conclusive clinical evidence is available that these antibodies have any significant effect on short- and long-term clinical consequences.