Carbon-fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) has been successfully used in orthopedic implants. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the properties, technical data, and safety of CFR-PEEK biomaterial and to evaluate its potential for new innovation in the design of articulating medical devices. A comprehensive search in PubMed and EMBASE was conducted to identify articles relevant to the outcomes of CFR-PEEK orthopedic implants. The search was also expanded by reviewing the reference sections of selected papers and references and benchmark reports provided by content experts. A total of 23 articles were included in this review. There is limited literature available assessing the performance of CFR-PEEK, specifically as an implant material for arthroplasty systems. Nevertheless, available studies strongly support CFR-PEEK as a promising and suitable material for orthopedic implants because of its biocompatibility, material characteristics, and mechanical durability. Future studies should continue to investigate CFR-PEEK's potential benefits.