Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy: Outcome Analysis of an Anterior Entry Point
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BACKGROUND: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is a safe and effective treatment for hydrocephalus. An entry point located 4 cm anterior to the coronal suture, 3 cm anterior to Kocher point, and approximately 9 cm from the pupil at the midpupillary line has been used successfully for the last 20 years in our center. We aimed to evaluate this alternative anterior entry point routinely used for ETV, with or without concurrent endoscopic biopsy. METHODS: Patients undergoing this proposed entry point were examined to evaluate its safety and efficacy. Factors such as patients' age, sex, hydrocephalus etiology, tumor location and pathology, and complication rate were examined through regression analyses to evaluate their impact on tumor biopsy and ETV success rates, and the need for subsequent ventricular shunting. RESULTS: A total of 131 patients were included in the study. ETV was successful in 125 (95.4%) patients. Of these, 26 (19.8%) patients required a biopsy, which was successful in 21 (80.8%) cases. A complication was observed in 10 (7.6%) patients, with a trend toward complications occurring after ETV failure. There was no association between ETV success rate and patients' age (P = 0.5) or sex (P = 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: The anterior entry point is a safe and effective method for ETV, especially when considering concurrent ventricular tumor biopsy. This entry point may be considered as a more minimally invasive procedure when using rigid endoscopy and may also eliminate the need for a flexible scope.
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