- Paediatric restless legs syndrome (RLS) treatment is important because RLS's associated sleep disturbance causes significant developmental-behavioural morbidity and impacts family well-being. RLS is associated with brain iron insufficiency and dopaminergic dysfunction. Diagnosis requires fulfillment of diagnostic criteria, which for children are currently in evolution, and have limitations, especially in preschoolers. The community physician needs to recognize the possibility of RLS to refer to a sleep specialist for diagnostic confirmation and management recommendations, which include oral iron therapy, even though there is currently no definitive research evidence for iron efficacy in most children with RLS. A 3 mg to 6 mg elemental iron/kg/day dose for three months could be tried if the ferritin level is <50 ug/L. Sleep hygiene and behavioural strategies are also recommended. Iron supplementation should be safe in the absence of iron metabolism disorders, provided that transferrin saturation and ferritin levels are monitored pre-and post-treatment.