Neurobehavioural outcomes of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: A Canadian perspective
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Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is one of the most common preventable causes of developmental disability and is currently one of the most pressing public health concerns in Canada. FASD refers to the range of physical, mental, behavioural and learning disabilities that an individual may acquire as a result of maternal alcohol consumption. Prenatal exposure to alcohol leads to numerous primary and secondary disabilities in affected children, which can result in poor long-term outcomes. The present paper reviews previous research on the neurobehavioural outcomes of children with FASD, particularly in terms of behavioural, mental health and adaptive outcomes. The role of risk and protective factors on these outcomes and the impact of FASD on the family are also examined. Finally, future directions and implications regarding outcomes research among children with FASD, particularly within a Canadian context, are discussed.
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