Selective inhibition of oxalate-stimulated Ca2+ transport by cyclopiazonic acid and thapsigargin in smooth muscle microsomes
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45Ca2+ uptake and efflux studies were performed on membranes prepared from dog mesenteric artery and rat vas deferens. Oxalate-stimulated, ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake in microsomal vesicles, a property characteristic of sarcoplasmic reticulum, was completely inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by cyclopiazonic acid (0.1-30 microM) and thapsigargin (10 nM-10 microM). Using discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation, rat vas deferens microsomes were separated into two fractions, one enriched in plasma membrane (F2), the other enriched in sarcoplasmic reticulum (F3). The F3 fraction had a major increase in Ca2+ uptake in the presence of oxalate, which was completely inhibited by either cyclopiazonic acid or thapsigargin. In the F2 fraction Ca2+ uptake in the presence of oxalate was lower than in F3 and was not completely inhibited by thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid. Instead, the F2 fraction had a thapsigargin-insensitive and cyclopiazonic acid insensitive, saponin-sensitive component of uptake, which probably represents Ca2+ uptake by plasma membrane. In the absence of oxalate, the inhibition of Ca2+ uptake by saponin and cyclopiazonic acid or thapsigargin was additive in the F2 and F3 fractions, suggesting that cyclopiazonic acid and thapsigargin selectively inhibited sarcoplasmic reticulum derived Ca2+ uptake and did not affect plasma membrane derived Ca2+ uptake. Measurement of the initial rate of Ca2+ uptake in the presence and absence of oxalate by rat vas deferens microsomes demonstrated selective inhibition of oxalate-stimulated Ca2+ uptake by cyclopiazonic acid and thapsigargin. Ca2+ efflux from rat vas deferens microsomes actively loaded with 45Ca2+ either in presence or the absence of oxalate was not increased by cyclopiazonic acid or thapsigargin, showing that the inhibition of Ca2+ accumulation was not due to an increase in Ca2+ efflux. In both rat vas deferens and dog mesenteric artery, the maximal inhibitory effects of cyclopiazonic acid developed rapidly, whereas for maximal inhibition thapsigargin required pretreatment of microsomes prior to measurement of Ca2+ uptake. In rat vas deferens microsomes the inhibitory effects of cyclopiazonic acid could be quickly and completely reversed, whereas the effects of thapsigargin were not easily reversed. Collectively, these results suggest selectivity of cyclopiazonic acid and thapsigargin for the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump. Their selective inhibitory properties and differences in onset and offset of inhibition make cyclopiazonic acid thapsigargin useful pharmacological tools in the study of the physiological and pathophysiological roles of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump in regulating smooth muscle Ca2+.
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