Incidence of Capsular Contracture in Silicone Versus Saline Cosmetic Augmentation Mammoplasty: A Meta-Analysis
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INTRODUCTION: Capsular contracture after augmentation mammoplasty occurs at a rate of 15% to 45%. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of implant core type (silicone versus saline) on the rate of capsular contracture in augmentation mammoplasty. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted through a search of three electronic databases. Two reviewers independently scanned titles yielded by the search and identified potentially relevant papers. Inter-reviewer variability and the scientific quality of the articles were assessed. Meta-analysis was performed. RESULTS: Eighty-eight titles of potential relevance were selected from the 393 articles yielded by the search. Inter-rater agreement for selection of potentially relevant articles was 84% (kappa=0.54). Four comparative studies were included in the analysis. Scientific quality scores of the included studies ranged from 5 of 14 to 9 of 14. Three of the four studies reported a higher rate of capsular contracture in patients with silicone implants. A combined odds ratio calculated on two of the studies found a 2.25-fold increased risk of capsular contracture in patients who received silicone implants. Eight series of patients who received cohesive gel silicone implants reported rates of capsular contracture from 0% to 13.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Higher rates of capsular contracture were found in patients who received silicone implants when compared with those who received saline implants. However, the scientific quality of the comparative studies to date on this subject is poor. Recent series evaluating cohesive gel implants report relatively low rates of capsular contracture. A randomized controlled trial comparing rates of capsular contracture in cohesive gel and saline implants is recommended.