Nutrient intake and serum cytokine pattern in elderly people with heart failure
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BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is frequently complicated by malnutrition. We estimated nutrient intake in HF patients and evaluated the correlation between serum cytokines and dietary pattern. METHODS: We studied 124 elderly (>or=60 years) patients with severe HF (N=62) or without HF (controls, N=62), matched for age and sex. Nutritional data were obtained from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) questionnaire. We compared the intake of macro- and micronutrients in the two groups; in the HF group nutritional intake was correlated with serum cytokines. RESULTS: HF patients had a lower energy intake (26.8 Kcal/Kg of ideal weight vs. 37.3 Kcal /Kg ideal weight in controls, P<0.001) due to a lower intake of all macronutrients. The energy intake was lower than the recommended (30 Kcal/Kg of ideal body weight) in 72% of HF and 34% of the controls. The intake of several minerals and vitamins was inferior to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) in most participants. Those HF patients with a caloric intake below the median (22.6 Kcal/Kg ideal weight) did not differ substantially from those with higher caloric intake with regard to age, functional characteristics, and lean body mass as expressed by the mid-arm muscle circumference, however, they had a higher concentration of IL4 (61.5 pg/ml vs. 37.7 pg/ml, P=0.075) and of IL10 (6.32 pg/ml vs. 2.06 pg/ml, P=0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional intake is frequently inadequate in patients with severe HF. Our results suggest that some interleukins might affect caloric intake in patients with HF.
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