- Patients with diverticular disease may experience a variety of chronic symptoms, including abdominal discomfort, bloating, and altered bowel habit. They are also at risk of complications, including hemorrhage, diverticulitis, abscess, and fistula formation. The potential role of abnormal colonic microflora in the pathogenesis of diverticular inflammation has led to investigation of novel therapies such as probiotics. Probiotics are microorganisms that may be of net benefit to humans when consumed. The rationale and safety of their use in diverticular disease is discussed and current literature is reviewed.