Meta-analysis: peri-operative anti-TNFα treatment and post-operative complications in patients with inflammatory bowel disease
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BACKGROUND: The impact of peri-operative use of TNFα antagonists on post-operative complications such as infection and wound healing is controversial. AIM: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the impact of peri-operative use of TNFα antagonists on post-operative complications such as infection and wound healing in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: A literature search identified studies that investigated post-operative outcomes in patients with IBD using TNFα antagonists. The primary outcome was the rate of post-operative infectious complications. Secondary outcomes included the rates of non-infectious complications and total complications. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. RESULTS: Overall, 18 studies with 4659 participants were eligible for inclusion. Patients with IBD using preoperative anti-TNFα therapies had significant increases in post-operative infectious [OR 1.56 (95% CI, 1.09-2.24)], non-infectious [OR 1.57 (95% CI, 1.14-2.17)] and total complications [OR 1.73 (95% CI, 1.23-2.43)]. Studies limited to patients with Crohn's disease demonstrated a statistically significant increase in infectious (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.28-2.89) and total (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.69-2.84) complications, and a trend towards increase in non-infectious complications (OR 1.73, 95% CI 0.94-3.17). Studies of patients with ulcerative colitis did not demonstrate significant increases in infectious (OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.56-3.45), non-infectious (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.68-2.85), or total complications (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.81-1.47). CONCLUSION: Anti-TNFα therapies appear to increase the risk of post-operative complications. The increase in risk is small, and may well reflect residual confounding rather than a true biological effect. Nevertheless, physicians should exercise caution when continuing biological therapies during the peri-operative period.
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