- AIM: To assess the tolerability and efficacy of high-dose vitamin D3 in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of high-dose vitamin D3 at 10,000 IU daily (n = 18) compared to 1000 IU daily (n = 16) for 12 months in patients with CD in remission. The primary outcome was change in serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels. Secondary outcomes included clinical relapse rates and changes in mood scores. RESULTS: High-dose vitamin D3 at 10,000 IU daily significantly improved 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels from a mean of 73.5 nmol/L [standard deviation (SD) 11.7 nmol/L] to 160.8 nmol/L (SD 43.2 nmol/L) (p = 0.02). On an intention-to-treat basis, the rate of relapse was not significantly different between patients receiving low- and high-dose vitamin D3 (68.8 vs 33.3%, p = 0.0844). In per-protocol analysis, clinical relapse of Crohn's disease was less frequently observed in patients receiving a high dose (0/12 or 0%) compared to those receiving a low dose of 1000 IU daily (3/8 or 37.5%) (p = 0.049). Improvement in anxiety and depression scores and a good safety profile were observed in both groups treated with vitamin D3. CONCLUSIONS: Oral supplementation with high-dose vitamin D3 at 10,000 IU daily significantly improved serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels. Rates of clinical relapse were similar between both groups. Larger studies using high-dose vitamin D3 for treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases are warranted. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV REGISTRATION NO: NCT02615288.