Assisted reproductive technology is widely used to treat couples affected by infertility. Complications associated with assisted reproduction include venous thromboembolism, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and recurrent implantation failure. It has also been proposed that thrombophilia may be associated with an increased likelihood of these events. Although data are limited, antithrombotic therapy is frequently used to enhance the likelihood of successful assisted reproduction. This chapter reviews the risks of venous and arterial thromboembolism associated with assisted reproduction, as well as available data regarding the impact of thrombophilia on the risks of thromboembolism and failure of implantation. The role of antithrombotic therapy in reducing the likelihood of these events, along with recommendations from various guidelines, are also discussed.