Self-management education interventions for patients with cancer: a systematic review
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PURPOSE: This systematic review was intended to identify the effectiveness and inclusion of essential components of self-management education interventions to support patients with cancer in developing the skills needed for effective self-management of their disease and the acute or immediate, long-term, and late harmful effects of treatments. METHODS: Self-management education interventions were included if they were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) containing at least one of the eight core elements outlined by the research team. A systematic search was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE (2005 through April 2015), Embase (2005 to 2015, week 15), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Issue 4, April 2015), CINAHL (2005 to 2015) and PsychINFO (2005 to 2015). Keywords searched include 'self-management patient education' or 'patient education'. RESULTS: Forty-two RCTs examining self-management education interventions for patients with cancer were identified. Heterogeneity of interventions precluded meta-analysis, but narrative qualitative synthesis suggested that self-management education interventions improve symptoms of fatigue, pain, depression, anxiety, emotional distress and quality of life. Results for specific combinations of core elements were inconclusive. Very few studies used the same combinations of core elements, and among those that did, results were conflicting. Thus, conclusions as to the components or elements of self-management education interventions associated with the strength of the effects could not be assessed by this review. CONCLUSION: Defining the core components of cancer self-management education and the fundamental elements for inclusion in supporting effective self-management will be critical to ensure consistent and effective provision of self-management support in the cancer system.