Studies of synthetic peptide analogs of the amphipathic helix. Effect of charge distribution, hydrophobicity, and secondary structure on lipid association and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activation.
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Four peptides capable of forming an amphipathic alpha-helix have been synthesized and their conformational and lipid-binding properties studied. These peptides have been designed to vary the alpha-helix-forming potential as well as the charge distribution of the model peptide. The resulting peptide analogs and their complexes with dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine were studied by using right angle light scattering, negative stain electron microscopy, nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, and differential scanning calorimetry techniques. The four analogs, [Glu4,9, Leu11,17] (reverse-18A, [Glu4,9, Leu5,11,17] reverse-18A, [Glu1,8, Leu11,17] 18A, and [Glu1,8, Leu5,11,17] 18A were derived from a model amphipathic peptide Asp-Trp-Leu-Lys-Ala-Phe-Tyr-Asp-Lys-Val-Ala-Glu-Lys-Leu-Lys-Glu-Ala-Phe (18A) whose lipid-associating properties strongly mimic apolipoprotein A-I or derived from Lys-Trp-Leu-Asp-Ala-Phe-Tyr-Lys-Asp-Val-Ala-Lys-Glu-Leu-Glu-Lys-Ala-Phe (reverse-18A), a peptide with little affinity for lipid and having a reversed charge distribution compared to the 18A peptide. We have shown that by substituting glutamic acid and leucine for aspartic acid and alanine, respectively, in a weak lipid-associating amphipathic helix peptide, the lipid-associating ability can be increased. Thus, peptides with both kinds of charge distribution can associate with the lipid. The ability of the peptide to disrupt phospholipid bilayers, however, is higher for 18A analogs compared to the reverse-18A analogs even after increasing the helix-forming potential and hydrophobicity. In addition to forming smaller lipoprotein particles, the modified 18A analogs were much superior to the modified reverse-18A analogs in their ability to activate the enzyme lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase. This demonstrates that the positions of charged residues in the amphipathic helix play an important role in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activation.
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