Progression of atypical extraventricular neurocytoma to anaplastic ganglioglioma
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We report a childhood case of thalamic atypical extraventricular neurocytoma that progressed to highly anaplastic ganglioglioma after 8 years of dormancy after subtotal resection and chemotherapy. The neurocytoma displayed immunoreactivity only for synaptophysin, β-catenin, S100, and CD56. The ganglioglioma acquired strong immunoreactivity for chromogranin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, and p53 and showed a very high proliferation rate approaching 50% in some areas. Tumor transformation was associated with overexpression of components of the sonic hedgehog and Wnt developmental signaling pathways, which are known to regulate tumor-initiating cells in malignant brain neoplasms.
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