Groups IV, V, and X Phospholipases A2s in Human Neutrophils
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The bacterial tripeptide formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) induces the secretion of enzyme(s) with phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity from human neutrophils. We show that circulating human neutrophils express groups V and X sPLA(2) (GV and GX sPLA(2)) mRNA and contain GV and GX sPLA(2) proteins, whereas GIB, GIIA, GIID, GIIE, GIIF, GIII, and GXII sPLA(2)s are undetectable. GV sPLA(2) is a component of both azurophilic and specific granules, whereas GX sPLA(2) is confined to azurophilic granules. Exposure to fMLP or opsonized zymosan results in the release of GV but not GX sPLA(2) and most, if not all, of the PLA(2) activity in the extracellular fluid of fMLP-stimulated neutrophils is due to GV sPLA(2). GV sPLA(2) does not contribute to fMLP-stimulated leukotriene B(4) production but may support the anti-bacterial properties of the neutrophil, because 10-100 ng per ml concentrations of this enzyme lead to Gram-negative bacterial membrane phospholipid hydrolysis in the presence of human serum. By use of a recently described and specific inhibitor of cytosolic PLA(2)-alpha (group IV PLA(2)alpha), we show that this enzyme produces virtually all of the arachidonic acid used for the biosynthesis of leukotriene B(4) in fMLP- and opsonized zymosan-stimulated neutrophils, the major eicosanoid produced by these pro-inflammatory cells.
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