The Effect of Pranlukast on Allergen-induced Bone Marrow Eosinophilopoiesis in Subjects with Asthma
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We investigated the mechanisms by which leukotriene receptor antagonists decrease airway eosinophil number. In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, we examined the effects of 2 weeks of treatment with pranlukast 300 mg twice a day or placebo on allergen-induced changes in airway eosinophil number and bone marrow eosinophil progenitors in 15 subjects with mild asthma. Pranlukast treatment for 2 weeks decreased mean sputum eosinophil count from 0.15 x 10(6)/g (5.3% of cells) before treatment to 0.02 x 10(6)/g (0.7% of cells) after treatment (p < 0.05), whereas placebo did not. Pranlukast also decreased the eosinophil count (5.6% at 7 hours and 7.5% at 24 hours) (p < 0.05) after allergen inhalation compared with placebo (13.8% at 7 hours and 15.3% at 24 hours). There was a similar trend for sputum cells immunostaining for EG2, eotaxin, interleukin-5, and regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted. Pranlukast also significantly attenuated the allergen-induced increase in the number of bone marrow eosinophil/basophil cfu (mean 0.3) at 24 hours compared with placebo (mean 6.2). The proportion of CD34(+) cells expressing the eotaxin receptor CC chemokine receptor 3, 24 hours after allergen inhalation, was also reduced by pranlukast. We conclude that, the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, pranlukast, attenuates allergen-induced increase in airway eosinophils by decreasing bone marrow eosinophilopoiesis and airway chemotactic and eosinophilopoietic cytokines.
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