Overexpression of the 78-kDa Glucose-regulated Protein/Immunoglobulin-binding Protein (GRP78/BiP) Inhibits Tissue Factor Procoagulant Activity
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Previous studies have demonstrated that overexpression of GRP78/BiP, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident molecular chaperone, in mammalian cells inhibits the secretion of specific coagulation factors. However, the effects of GRP78/BiP on activation of the coagulation cascade leading to thrombin generation are not known. In this study, we examined whether GRP78/BiP overexpression mediates cell surface thrombin generation in a human bladder cancer cell line T24/83 having prothrombotic characteristics. We report here that cells overexpressing GRP78/BiP exhibited significant decreases in cell surface-mediated thrombin generation, prothrombin consumption and the formation of thrombin-inhibitor complexes, compared with wild-type or vector-transfected cells. This effect was attributed to the ability of GRP78/BiP to inhibit cell surface tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity (PCA) because conversion of factor X to Xa and factor VII to VIIa were significantly lower on the surface of GRP78/BiP-overexpressing cells. The additional findings that (i) cell surface factor Xa generation was inhibited in the absence of factor VIIa and (ii) TF PCA was inhibited by a neutralizing antibody to human TF suggests that thrombin generation is mediated exclusively by TF. GRP78/BiP overexpression did not decrease cell surface levels of TF, suggesting that the inhibition in TF PCA does not result from retention of TF in the ER by GRP78/BiP. The additional observations that both adenovirus-mediated and stable GRP78/BiP overexpression attenuated TF PCA stimulated by ionomycin or hydrogen peroxide suggest that GRP78/BiP indirectly alters TF PCA through a mechanism involving cellular Ca(2+) and/or oxidative stress. Similar results were also observed in human aortic smooth muscle cells transfected with the GRP78/BiP adenovirus. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that overexpression of GRP78/BiP decreases thrombin generation by inhibiting cell surface TF PCA, thereby suppressing the prothrombotic potential of cells.
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