Isoprostanes are produced during peroxidation of membrane lipids by free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Initially, they were recognized as being valuable markers of oxidative stress, and in the past 10 years, dozens of disease states and experimental conditions with diverse etiologies have been shown to be associated with marked increases in urinary, plasma, and tissue levels of isoprostanes. However, they are not just mere markers; they evoke important biological responses on virtually every cell type found within the lung, and these responses exhibit compound-, tissue-, and species-related variations. In fact, the isoprostanes may mediate many of the features of the disease states for which they are used as indicators. In this review, I describe the chemistry, metabolism, and pharmacology of isoprostanes, with a particular emphasis on pulmonary cell types, and the possible roles of isoprostanes in pulmonary pathophysiology.