Thrombosis and embolism in pediatric cardiomyopathy
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The management of cardiomyopathy in pediatric patients is complicated by the risk of cardiac-associated embolism. This review examines the incidence, risk factors, and treatment of embolism in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM), and noncompaction of the left ventricular myocardium (NLVM) in children. The reported incidence of embolism for DCM ranges from 1 to 16%. Left ventricular ejection fraction below 25% or fractional shortening below 15% are major risk factors for intracardiac thrombus formation in this group. The risk of embolism for RCM ranges from 12 to 33%. Atrial dilation is considered the major risk factor. The reported incidence of embolism for NLVM ranges from 0 to 38%, with most studies indicating an absence of detectable thrombus or embolus. Severe systolic dysfunction exacerbates the risk of embolism in this group. On the basis of these risk factors, we propose an algorithm for the management of embolism in these groups of patients.
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