Longitudinal Study of Emotional Intelligence, Leadership, and Caring in Undergraduate Nursing Students
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This study describes the development of emotional intelligence (EI), leadership, and caring in undergraduate nursing students throughout their educational program. A correlational, repeated measures study design was used. Fifty-two nursing students completed four self-report questionnaires on three occasions (T1, T2, T3): BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Short (EQ-i:S), Self-Assessment Leadership Instrument (SALI), Caring Ability Inventory (CAI), and Caring Dimensions Inventory (CDI). Mean scores for Total EI did not change significantly over time (T1, 100.1 ± 13.8; T2, 103.1 ± 13.8; T3, 101.6 ± 14.7). However, EI adaptability was higher at T2 (101.6 ± 13.1) and T3 (101.8 ± 14.1) than at T1 (97.0 ± 12.5; p = 0.03), as was CAI Courage (64.2 ± 9.5, 66.7 ± 9.5, 66.9 ± 8.7; p = 0.04) and the CDI (96.8 ± 18.1, 103.0 ± 7.3, 102.0 ± 10.9; p = 0.02). Changes in EI were positively correlated (r > 0.50, p < 0.001) with changes in SALI, CAI Knowing, and CAI Courage. During the undergraduate program, significant increases occurred in caring and EI adaptability but not in overall EI or leadership.
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