Outcomes of children at 2 years after planned cesarean birth versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: The international randomized Term Breech Trial Academic Article uri icon

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  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether planned cesarean delivery for the singleton fetus in breech presentation at term reduces the risk of death or neurodevelopmental delay at 2 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: In selected centers in the Term Breech Trial, children were screened for abnormalities at > or =2 years of age with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, followed by a neurodevelopmental assessment if the Ages and Stages Questionnaire score was abnormal. RESULTS: A total of 923 of 1159 children (79.6%) from 85 centers were followed to 2 years of age. The risk of death or neurodevelopmental delay was no different for the planned cesarean than for the planned vaginal birth groups (14 children [3.1%] vs 13 children [2.8%]; relative risk, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.52- 2.30; P = .85; risk difference, +0.3%; 95% CI, -1.9%, +2.4%). CONCLUSION: Planned cesarean delivery is not associated with a reduction in risk of death or neurodevelopmental delay in children at 2 years of age.


  • Whyte, Hilary
  • Hannah, Mary E
  • Saigal, Saroj
  • Hannah, Walter J
  • Hewson, Sheila
  • Amankwah, Kofi
  • Cheng, Mary
  • Gafni, Amiram Jacob
  • Guselle, Patricia
  • Helewa, Michael
  • Hodnett, Ellen D
  • Hutton, Eileen
  • Kung, Rose
  • McKay, Darren
  • Ross, Susan
  • Willan, Andrew

publication date

  • September 2004

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