Topoisomerase inhibitor camptothecin (CPT) induces fork stalling and is highly toxic to proliferating cells. However, how cells respond to CPT-induced fork stalling has not been fully characterized. Here, we report that Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB) protein inhibits PRIMPOL-dependent fork repriming in response to a low dose of CPT. At a high concentration of CPT, CSB is required to promote the restart of DNA replication through MUS81–RAD52–POLD3-dependent break-induced replication (BIR). In the absence of CSB, resumption of DNA synthesis at a high concentration of CPT can occur through POLQ–LIG3-, LIG4-, or PRIMPOL-dependent pathways, which are inhibited, respectively, by RAD51, BRCA1, and BRCA2 proteins. POLQ and LIG3 are core components of alternative end joining (Alt-EJ), whereas LIG4 is a core component of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). These results suggest that CSB regulates fork restart pathway choice following high-dosage CPT-induced fork stalling, promoting BIR but inhibiting Alt-EJ, NHEJ, and fork repriming. We find that loss of CSB and BRCA2 is a toxic combination to genomic stability and cell survival at a high concentration of CPT, which is likely due to accumulation of ssDNA gaps, underscoring an important role of CSB in regulating the therapy response in cancers lacking functional BRCA2.