The gut protist Tritrichomonas arnold restrains virus-mediated loss of oral tolerance by modulating dietary antigen-presenting dendritic cells
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Loss of oral tolerance (LOT) to gluten, driven by dendritic cell (DC) priming of gluten-specific T helper 1 (Th1) cell immune responses, is a hallmark of celiac disease (CeD) and can be triggered by enteric viral infections. Whether certain commensals can moderate virus-mediated LOT remains elusive. Here, using a mouse model of virus-mediated LOT, we discovered that the gut-colonizing protist Tritrichomonas (T.) arnold promotes oral tolerance and protects against reovirus- and murine norovirus-mediated LOT, independent of the microbiota. Protection was not attributable to antiviral host responses or T. arnold-mediated innate type 2 immunity. Mechanistically, T. arnold directly restrained the proinflammatory program in dietary antigen-presenting DCs, subsequently limiting Th1 and promoting regulatory T cell responses. Finally, analysis of fecal microbiomes showed that T. arnold-related Parabasalid strains are underrepresented in human CeD patients. Altogether, these findings will motivate further exploration of oral-tolerance-promoting protists in CeD and other immune-mediated food sensitivities.
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