Effects of Ammonia on Survival, Swimming and Activities of Enzymes of Nitrogen Metabolism in the Lake Magadi Tilapia Oreochromis Alcalicus Grahami Journal Articles uri icon

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  • ABSTRACT The Lake Magadi tilapia, Oreochromis alcalicus grahami, is remarkable among teleosts in that it flourishes under extremely well-buffered alkaline water conditions (pH10, 180mmol l−1) at temperatures of 30–40°C (Wood et al. 1989). As expected from current models in teleosts, ammonia excretion into such water would be difficult at best (Wood, 1993). Part of the survival strategy of the Lake Magadi tilapia is that it has a complete ornithine–urea cycle (O–UC) in the liver and excretes virtually all of its waste nitrogen as urea (Randall et al. 1989). Ammonia toxicity in ammoniotelic teleosts has been studied extensively, and typical values for unionized ammonia (NH3) 96h LC 50 (the concentration at which half of test subjects die after 96h) are well below 100 μmol l−1 (Haywood, 1983; Thurston et al. 1983a,b; Campbell, 1991). Surprisingly, no ammonia LC50 values are available for ureogenic teleost fish, and one would predict that fish synthesizing and excreting urea for whatever purpose would have higher LC50 values than their ammoniotelic counterparts. Additionally, since ammonia exposure has been implicated in the functional response of urea excretion in the Lake Magadi tilapia (Wood et al. 1989) and another ureogenic teleost (the gulf toadfish Opsanus beta) (Walsh et al. 1990), we reasoned that ammonia exposure in the Lake Magadi tilapia might reveal insights into the biochemical regulation of the O–UC in this species; in particular that it might induce enzyme activity. We report here that the Lake Magadi tilapia has a rather high ammonia LC50 compared to values for other teleosts, but that short-term ammonia exposure has very limited effects on the activities of the enzymes of nitrogen metabolism and on swimming performance.


  • Walsh, Patrick J
  • Bergman, Harold L
  • Narahara, Annie
  • Wood, Chris M
  • Wright, Patricia A
  • Randall, David J
  • Maina, JN
  • Laurent, Pierre

publication date

  • July 1, 1993