Canada population norms for the EQ-5D-5L Journal Articles uri icon

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  • OBJECTIVE: In Canada, population norms are only available for 2 provinces, Alberta and Quebec. The objective of this study was to derive the population norms for the EQ-5D-5L based on a representative sample of the Canadian general population. METHODS: Data from the Canadian EQ-5D-5L valuation study, a cross-sectional study, were used. A quota sampling method was used to recruit a representative sample of the Canadian general population in terms of age, sex, and education. EQ-5D-5L utilities and EQ VAS were summarized using descriptive statistics and the impact of demographic characteristics on the EQ-5D-5L utilities was evaluated using statistical hypothesis testing and Tobit regression. RESULTS: 1207 eligible participants were included in the analysis. Pain/discomfort (53.1%) was the most frequently reported domain with any problem, and self-care (7.6%) domain was the least. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) EQ-5D-5L utility was 0.864 (0.121) and the mean (SD) EQ VAS was 82.3 (14.23). The highest mean EQ-5D-5L utility was 0.881 in age group 25-34 while the lowest was 0.839 in age group 55-64. Participants who had full-time employment, were married, a higher annual household income and no chronic health conditions had significantly higher EQ-5D-5L utilities. CONCLUSION: This article reports the first Canadian population norms for the EQ-5D-5L and can be used as population references for economic evaluations and clinical research.


  • Yan, Jiajun
  • Xie, Shitong
  • Johnson, Jeffrey A
  • Pullenayegum, Eleanor
  • Ohinmaa, Arto
  • Bryan, Stirling
  • Xie, Feng

publication date

  • February 24, 2023