Resistance to genotoxic therapies and tumor recurrence are hallmarks of glioblastoma (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor. Here, we explore the functional drivers of post-treatment recurrent GBM. By conducting genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screens in patient-derived GBM models, we uncover distinct genetic dependencies in recurrent tumor cells that were absent in their patient-matched primary predecessors, accompanied by increased mutational burden and differential transcript and protein expression. These analyses map a multilayered genetic response to drive tumor recurrence, identifying protein tyrosine phosphatase 4A2 (PTP4A2) as a novel modulator of self-renewal, proliferation and tumorigenicity at GBM recurrence. Mechanistically, genetic perturbation or small molecule inhibition of PTP4A2 represses axon guidance activity through a dephosphorylation axis with roundabout guidance receptor 1 (ROBO1), exploiting a functional dependency on ROBO signaling. Importantly, engineered anti-ROBO1 single-domain antibodies also mimic the effects of PTP4A2 inhibition. We conclude that functional reprogramming drives tumorigenicity and dependence on a multi-targetable PTP4A2-ROBO1 signaling axis at GBM recurrence.