Performance comparison of two Olympus InnovX handheld x-ray analyzers for feasibility of measuring arsenic in skin in vivo – Alpha and Delta models
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The Figure-Of-Merit (FOM) performance, a combination of detection limit and dose, is compared between two generations of handheld X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers for the feasibility of in vivo XRF measurement of arsenic (As) in skin. The Olympus InnovX Delta model analyzer (40 kVp using either 37 or 17μA) was found to show improvements in Minimum Detection Limit (MDL) using arsenic As-doped skin calibration phantoms with bulk tissue backing, when compared to the first generation InnovX Alpha model (40kVp, 20μA) in 120s measurements. Differences between two different definitions of MDL are discussed. On the Delta system, an MDL of (0.462±0.002) μg/g As was found in phantoms, with a nylon backing behind to mimic bulk tissue behind skin. The equivalent and effective doses were found to be (10±2) mSv and ~7×10-3μSv respectively for the Alpha and (15±4) mSv and ~8×10-3μSv respectively for the Delta system in 120s exposures. Combining MDL and effective dose, a lower (better) FOM was found for the Delta, (1.7±0.4) ppm mSv1/2, compared to (4.4±0.5) ppm mSv1/2 for the Alpha model system. The Delta analyzer demonstrates improved overall system performance for a rapid 2-min measurement in As skin phantoms, such that it can be considered for use in populations exposed to arsenic.
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