Probing the "active site" of diamine oxidase: structure-activity relations for histamine potentiation by O-alkylhydroxylamines on colonic epithelium.
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The responses of the canine colonic epithelium to histamine are potentiated by O-alkylhydroxylamines. A study of a series of such compounds suggested that active compounds had the structure R-O-NH2, substitution of a nitrogen led to total loss of activity. The locus of the potentiation effect was traced to the inhibition of diamine oxidase. A new series of aliphatic and aromatic O-alkylhydroxylamines were synthesized to explore further the structure-activity relations of this effect. The potentiating effects of these compounds were determined by examining the changes in short circuit current (Isc) produced by histamine and from the activity of a soluble preparation of diamine oxidase. We found that 1) branched compounds are less active than their straight chain counterparts, 2) greater steric bulk of the aliphatic substituent decreased activity, 3) the presence of a double bond had no significant effect though a triple bond reduced activity, 4) longer straight chain compounds were less active than the shorter chain derivatives and 5) all benzylic compounds were less active than the straight chain aliphatics. O-1-benzyl was inactive however the meta or para oxygen substituted compounds as well as the O-(1-E-Cinnamyl) derivative were active. A current model for the action of diamine oxidase proposes a crucial role for a trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone cofactor as part of the active site together with a copper atom. Using molecular modeling based on our inhibition data we are able to define the region of space that is just beyond the reactive carbonyl of the trihydroxyphenylalanine residue at the active site of diamine oxidase. We suggest that a negatively charged species, such as an aspartate or a glutamate, resides in a trough about 7 to 8 A from the trihydroxyphenylalanine carbonyl carbon and this species aids in the strong selective binding of substrates such as putrescine and histamine.
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