A Population-Based Study of Dystrophin Mutations in Canada
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INTRODUCTION: We carried out a population-based study of dystrophin mutations in patients followed by members of the Canadian Paediatric Neuromuscular Group (CPNG) over a ten-year period. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe the changes in diagnostic testing for dystrophinopathy and to determine the frequency of dystrophin mutations from 2000 to 2009. METHODS: De-identified data containing the clinical phenotypes, diagnostic methods, and mutational reports from dystrophinopathy patients followed by CPNG centres from January 2000 to December 2009 were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: 773 patients had a confirmed diagnosis of dystrophinopathy based on genetic testing (97%), muscle biopsy (2%), or family history (1%). 573 (74%) had complete deletion/duplication analysis of all 79 exons or whole gene sequencing, resulting in 366 (64%) deletions, 64 (11%) duplications, and 143 (25%) point mutations. The percentage of patients who were diagnosed using currently accepted genetic testing methods varied across Canada, with a mean of 63% (SD 23). 246 (43%) mutations involved exons 45 to 53. The top ten deletions (n=147, 26%) were exons 45-47, 45-48, 45, 45-50, 45-55, 51, 45-49, 45-52, 49-50, and 46-47. 169 (29%) mutations involved exons 2 to 20. The most common duplications (n=29, 5.1%) were exons 2, 2-7, 2-17, 3-7, 8-11, 10, 10-11, and 12. CONCLUSION: This is the most comprehensive report of dystrophin mutations in Canada. Consensus guidelines regarding the diagnostic approach to dystrophinopathy will hopefully reduce the geographical variation in mutation detection rates in the coming decade.
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