Comparative analysis of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome to other inherited bone marrow failure syndromes and genotype-phenotype correlation
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Our knowledge of the phenotypes of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFSs) derives from case reports or case series in which only one IBMFS was studied. However, the substantial phenotypic overlap necessitates comparative analysis between the IBMFSs. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an IBMFS that the appreciation of what comprises its clinical phenotype is still evolving. In this analysis we used data on 125 patients from the Canadian Inherited Marrow Failure Study (CIMFS), which is a prospective multicenter population-based study. Thirty-four cases of SDS patients were analyzed and compared to other patients with the four most common IBMFSs on the CIMFS: Diamond Blackfan anemia, Fanconi anemia (FA), Kostmann/severe congenital neutropenia and dyskeratosis congenita (DC). The diagnosis of SDS, FA and DC was often delayed relative to symptoms onset; indicating a major need for improving tools to establish a rapid diagnosis. We identified multiple phenotypic differences between SDS and other IBMFSs, including several novel differences. SBDS biallelic mutations were less frequent than in previous reports (81%). Importantly, compared to patients with biallelic mutations, patients with wild type SBDS had more severe hematological disease but milder pancreatic disease. In conclusion, comprehensive study of the IBMFSs can provide useful comparative data between the disorders. SBDS-negative SDS patients may have more severe hematological failure and milder pancreatic disease.
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